All hail the national style

In my piece on the California bungalow, I mention the idea of a country seeking a national style. It’s an interesting one, I think, especially for new countries like Australia whose early architecture was imported wholesale from a country with a totally different climate. In older countries, architectural styles have evolved organically from the earliest covered dwellings and because of that there are notable differences in different parts of the same country. In Britain, for instance, particular building materials show the availability of that material in the area, from the golden glow of Cotswold stone to the use of flint in East Anglia.

Norwich cathedral

Norwich cathedral

But it’s not always that simple.
Studying Norwich cathedral in my first year at university, I was surprised to learn that the smooth limestone that dressed its slender Norman pillars (ashlar masonry) was not local or even close to local but shipped over from Caen in northern France. As the cathedral was started not long after the Norman Conquest in the 11th century, the Norman masons obviously preferred to use a material that they were familiar with. If local materials had been explored then it might have been a very strange mix of flint, brick and wattle & daub.

Standen wiki commons

wiki commons

The idea of the vernacular was explored in Britain by the Arts and Crafts architects of the nineteenth century who liked the local styles for their authenticity (a key word in the Arts and Crafts movement). Certainly there was more variation than in the straightforward Classical or Gothic styles that were used predominantly in public buildings. And so one finds in the large houses of the period, such as Phillip Webb’s Standen in Sussex or ES Prior’s Voewood (formerly Home Place) in Norfolk, many elements found in the local buildings, such as tile shingles or flint-dressed walls. A local rather than a national style.

Voewood, aka Home Place cc Wiki commons

Voewood, aka Home Place
cc Wiki commons

The Gothic versus Classical debate was the architectural style war of the nineteenth century. The result is visible throughout Britain in the town halls of the industrial cities, showing that there wasn’t a clear winner. For instance, the ones in Liverpool and Leeds are Classical whereas those in Manchester and Bradford are a rather inflated Gothic, not unlike the Bavarian castles of ‘Mad’ King Ludwig of the same period.

Leeds Town Hall

Leeds Town Hall

The most famous debate surrounded the building of the new Palace of Westminster in the 1840s after a fire in 1834 gutted the old buildings. The winning design is clearly Gothic. And yet, as Kevin McCloud demonstrated in his TV series on the Grand Tour, it is actually a Classical plan (balanced, symmetrical) that is simply covered with Gothic tracery and pinnacles.

Palace of Westminster cc Wiki Commons

Palace of Westminster
cc Wiki Commons

Is the idea of a national style still relevant? Certainly the Modern Movement swept the idea to one side along with other traditions. Flick through a book showing the latest domestic designs and it is hard to place the country in which the house stands without using the visual prompt of its surroundings. You only need to look at the old Ministry of Health & Education building in Rio de Janeiro, designed in the mid 1930s by Le Corbusier and a Brazilian team, including Lucio Costa, to see why Philip Johnson coined the term International Style for the Modernist styles that were appearing in all countries.

Palacio Gustavo Capanema, Rio cc Wiki Commons

Palacio Gustavo Capanema, Rio
cc Wiki Commons

And yet there are little features that still give hints of a national style, or a national preference at least. Windows, for instance – the majority of France’s still open inwards, Britain’s outwards, and Australia’s slide. 

(pic Australian  Design Review)

(pic Australian Design Review)

The Australian Glenn Murcutt is famous for making corrugated iron acceptable in this country’s housing landscape, even in cities, each following his lovely imperative to ‘touch this earth lightly.’ They have become the look of Australia, recalling the woolsheds and farm buildings seen across the land. In South Australia and Tasmania one finds stone still used but these are exceptions.

Aboriginal dwellings, 1840s

Aboriginal dwellings, 1840s

I like the idea of national characteristics and utilising local materials. As for a national style, well, Hitler was keen on that and for that reason alone, I think it’s best to stop the debate right there.

Categories: Architecture, Australia, TravelTags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,


  1. What a wonderful imperative, to ‘touch this earth lightly’. I have never heard of Glen Murcutt, is he an architect? If so, what other ‘touches’ did he bring to Australian design?

    Loved the bit about the windows – you’d think us Brits being so famously reserved would have windows that would open inwards …

  2. Have a look at this to see more of his projects: This team also includes architects like Rick Leplastrier and Peter Stutchbury, who again follow this wonderful slender aesthetic that fits in so beautifully with the Australian landscape.

    Yes, it’s funny about windows. Confession: for some time I used to watch Swedish TV (i.e. Wallander) and wonder why the entrance doors opened outwards. And then I saw an episode set in the dead of winter where the door pushed away snow that had banked up against the door in the night. Ah…Or perhaps d’oh! is more appropriate.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

La petite musique des vendredis

Le blog culturel d'Hélène Cascaro- arts visuels, cinéma, patrimoine, artisanat d'art, architecture,...


This site is the bee's knees

Avisha Rasminda

Hi, I'm Avisha Rasminda Twenty-Two years old, Introduce Myself As A Author , Painter , A Poet.

Ananda Only

an empty space between silence & stillness

A r e w e t h e r e y e t ?

Diversions, detours and discoveries

Nick Alexander

Author of Perfectly Ordinary People, From Something Old, The Road to Zoe, You Then Me Now, Things We Never Said, The Bottle of Tears, The Other Son, The Photographer's Wife, The Half-Life of Hannah, the 50 Reasons Series. And more...

Dr David T Evans, OBE NTF PFHEA RN(T)

Sexual health matters! It really does!

Dr. Eric Perry’s Blog

Motivate | Inspire | Uplift

Cole Moreton

Writer and broadcaster, Interviewer of the Year for the Mail, winner of Radio Academy gold with BBC Radio 4

British Wildlife & Photography

Place, Plots and Plans

The PlaceMatt Blog

viewer site

Barbara Heath & Malcolm Enright - our viewer site blog

kirilson photography

the stories behind the pictures, and vice versa

Not-So-Modern Girl

Thoughts of a twenty-something girl navigating her way one blog post at a time

Anthony Hillin

Training, Facilitation and Policy development

Notes from the U.K.

Exploring the spidery corners of a culture and the weird stuff that tourist brochures ignore.


T.V/Movie News & Reviews

SAVING OUR TREES - Marrickville municipality

Community Tree Watch - working to protect healthy public trees in Marrickville municipality from inappropriate removal


Film Score Reviews by Jonathan Broxton since 1997

A life in books

Book news, reviews and recommendations

150 great things about the Underground

An unofficial birthday salute to a public transport titan

Mistakes & Adventures

What I've always wanted


Literary Geography

UNSW Built Environment's Blog

Information from students and staff at Built Environment at the University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia.

joe moran's words

on the everyday, the banal and other important matters

The Back Road Chronicles

Curious soul...and it makes me wanna take the back roads!

At Home in France

My occasionally weird life in France

Wee Notions

Notes on a napkin

Philip Butler Photography

Architecture & Observations

Susie Trexler

Secret Knowledge of Spaces

Rebecca Renner

Welcome to Gator Country

kidlat habagat

Portraits of Urban life


DynamicStasis is basically an attempt to think about and discuss integrity, beauty, and delight - in architecture and elsewhere.

%d bloggers like this: